Me & my speech.

Doctors who ignorantly use BMI ratings, body mass index ratings, based on weight without taking into account muscle, organs, water, bone density & size, ASSume that it’s fat gain. “BMI has many limitations and is a poor tracking tool for weight change because there’s no way to identify if changes in your weight are in fat or muscle. Predicting health or mortality using a single number such as BMI oversimplifies health risks and ignores important factors that contribute to positive health.”  (

Not only do doctors ignorantly using BMI with people having WHOOPS DISEASE try to make you stop eating enough to stay alive, I’m barely getting 1,600 calories a day on average over the last year, and that amount is up from previous years which had been down to under 1000 calories a day. They inaccurately start adding to your medical files ‘overweight/fat/and more’ without taking the time to ask for body composition tests OR taking the time to do the test manually, or even doing the work to read your lists of food consumption, the lists of calorie counts, or more that you do to keep yourself alive.

Body composition tests do not have to be expensive, and doctors who took the time to ‘buy’ a cheap tool, learn to use it, and found ‘abnormal results’ with the body composition tests could get more accurate tests AND could be more accurate with their records. Since, “[b]ody composition is a method of breaking down the body into its core components: fat, protein, minerals, and body water. It describes your weight more accurately and provides a better glimpse into your overall health than traditional methods. Body composition analysis can accurately show changes in fat mass, muscle mass, and body fat percentage. ” (

There are various tools that can be used for body composition measures. The methods should be based on the measurement system that can be done manually, like with fat measuring tools like calipers. I haven’t added the tape measure methods because with an abnormal water composition measure the tape measure calculations will be wrong.

Goal Body Fat Percentage [GBF%]

The measures of the tools are based on finding out how close or far from the desired Goal Body Fat Percentages, [GBF%], a person is. These rates are generally more activity altered BUT ratings can be based on more than age. Here are some links to some different sites with GBF%’s shared:

These were pulled from the linked site above, these are age related Body Fat Percentage ratings, but modified for more accuracy and better readability by me for sharing with you:

The body fat ‘ideals’ are of use in the body composition calculations. AND while some machines will do the work for you other systems and processes could need double checking so using these manual calculation options can be of great help with many machines. The start of the calculations below utilizes the skin caliper measures, but other systems can give you measures. The second part of the calculation uses the body fat ideas and factors like age to work from.

Body Composition Calculations

As you can see with the body composition tools the measurements may result with some tools in a total that can be used. BUT with other tools additional calculations are needed, like with the body calipers. First take the time to get the correct material for measuring. The skin caliper method use the layer of fat under the skin and pinches for a measure. To do this accurately practice sliding your skin around over the under layers, you’ll note that you are also gathering fat. This is the layer that gets pinched, not anything else, OR your measures are inaccurate. The location of the pinches are listed in the calculations below. The locations impact the gathering, BUT also does the amount of actual body fat that you have. The skinnier OR fatter you are, the less OR more fat that you have, the more difficult it will be to pinch an amount accurately without causing damage OR hurt to other areas.

Below are some of the bits of info pulled from the Determination of Body Composition PDF authored by

Determination of body composition from skinfold measurements is based on the fact that a
large proportion of total body fat is stored directly underneath the skin…Reasonably accurate prediction of % body fat from skinfolds therefore requires that the equation
used for a given person to have been developed using a similar subject population…In an attempt to remedy this problem, Jackson and Pollock and Jackson, Pollock, and Ward
have provided generalized equations that have been validated for various age groups and both athletic and non-athletic populations.

Skin Caliper Uses for Body Composition Measures

[First take the time to get the correct material for measuring. The skin caliper method use the layer of fat under the skin and pinches for a measure. To do this accurately practice sliding your skin around over the under layers, you’ll note that you are also gathering fat. This is the layer that gets pinched, not anything else, OR your measures are inaccurate. The location of the pinches are listed in the calculations below. The locations impact the gathering, BUT also does the amount of actual body fat that you have. The skinnier OR fatter you are, the less OR more fat that you have, the more difficult it will be to pinch an amount accurately without causing damage OR hurt to other areas.]


  • x=sum of triceps, chest, and subscapular skinfolds (in mm) for men, and
    • the sum of triceps, suprailium, and abdominal skinfolds for women, and
  • y =age in years.
  • These equations are:
    • Men: D [Determination of body composition fat amounts]
      • =1.1125025-0.0013125(x) + 0.0000055(x2) – 0.000244(y)
    • Women: D [Determination of body composition fat amounts]
      • =1.089733-0.0009245(x) + 0.0000025(x2) – 0.0000979(y)

…Goal Body Fat Percentage and Target Weight
The following method can be used to determine goal body fat percentage (GBF%) and target weight (TW).
1. Multiply total body weight (TBW) by the body fat percentage (BF%) to determine fat weight (FW).

  • Step 1: TBW x BF%-FW
  1. Subtract FW from TBW
  • Step 2: TBW – FW=LBM [or FFM]
  1. The remaining weight is the fat free mass (FFM [or LBM])
    4. Determine an appropriate and reasonable GBF% [Goal Body Fat Percentage]
    5. Divide the LBM by the (1-GBF% [Goal Body Fat Percentage])
  • Step 3: LBM/(1-GBF%) = TW
  1. The answer will be the TBW at the predetermined GBF% [Goal Body Fat Percentage]
    7. Subtract the TW from the TBW to determine the amount of weight loss (WL) [OR Weight Gain (WG) required to achieve GBF%
  • Step 4: TBW – TW = WL

[Steps compiled]

  • Step 1: TBW x BF%-FW
  • Step 2: TBW – FW=LBM
  • Step 3: LBM/(1-GBF%) = TW
  • Step 4: TBW – TW = WL

Body Composition Measurement Tool Options

Some tools are cheap enough, they may not be as accurate as other tests, but they are way better than the BMI lies added to medical records. General tools search links:

There are various aspects of tools and values for users. So considering your needs, uses, and more can impact the better tools for you. In addition there are the issues with learning how to use the tools properly for the measures. Because a tool, like a scale that takes the body fat percentage, doesn’t mean it does the work in sharing the correct values with us and in some cases, since most the tools are setup for weight loss, there can be issues if a person has too little fat on their body.

Specific tools:

I’ve been to multiple sites looking for information including,, and others. One of the aspects I really appreciate is others comments/ratings on the items they have used. Their comments and more can really help me with my assessments. BUT the info often found requires time, so variations of needs and uses will impact each persons evaluations.

      • Display the correct resulting 6 seconds…After inputting your personal data, a measurement can be started by simply holding the grip electrodes and pressing the start button.
        • [Being handheld means that some individuals will have an easier time grasping it than standing. BUT because grips vary it can also mean various results will be gained at times with uses.]
      • Since the analyzer is built with a [9] person profile memory, each member of your family or team can track the success of their individual exercise routines
    • $14.49, No ratings at so far– This tool requires use on the 3 to 7 correct locations of the body, which vary for males and females, links about this above. AND as many people that can fit this can use it without messing up other ratings, each calculation setup is for each test by each individual. [This tool is different than other electronic calipers having a wider pinch mechanism which means less pain and damage for people.]
      • The calculations above describe more how to use this, but care is needed, because the pinch should only be the skin fat and skin, not the other body portions that are under layers in those zones where the pinching is being done.
    • $12.99- 5 Star rating from 1 person- Body Fat Caliper Handheld BMI Body Fat Measurement Device 
      • Made of ABS plastic material, more gentle to clip the skinfold than metal caliper…Electronic digital caliper, working buttons are illustrated with corresponding characters. Caliper can be used for measuring 0-50mm ranges of body fat accurately. Accurate, dependable and with good repeatability. 3 Volt battery not included.
  • Stand on, holds up to 400lbs- Beurer Body Fat Scale, BF221
    • $28.27- 4.5 out of 5 stars with 15 ratings at & 4.5 out of 5 stars with 232 ratings at BODY ANALYZER: The Beurer BF221 gives you a full body analysis. The scale measures body weight, body fat, body water, muscle %, and bone muscle; 1 scale – 10 people. This smart scale has memory spaces for 10 people and automatically recognizes each user. Up to 400lb users… the scale features a large platform and extra-large illuminated LCD display…Place your scale on a hard and level surface. Place bare feet on the stainless steel electrodes/conductors on the sides of the scale. Within seconds, the conductors then send a safe and very low electrical current through the lower half of your body. This full analysis measures and determines your percentage of body fat, water weight and muscle mass.
      • Gatorboy- 2-22-20 comment– The setup was quick and easy. Note that the quick start guide shows how to set up user data in slightly wrong order, but the main manual is accurate…There is no app with this scale since it does not support Bluetooth.
        • [This is great for people that don’t want to fiddle with an additional device while using the scale. BUT this can be an issue if your doctors demand copies of the info that they will trust. While they may accept your personal records OFTEN they only believe digital info they think can’t be modified or changed.]
      • jim f- 2-21-16 comment– Every time you want to get I for other than your weight, you have to hit a button and wait about 10 seconds for the scale to prep.
      • Amazon customer- 2-26-20 comment– I really like this scale and bought it specifically to measure the amount of water weight I am carrying.
      • Amazon customer- 2-26-20 comment– The scale has great features, however, batteries need to be replaced every two-three weeks. [It uses-  3 x AAA batteries, which means that battery changes can be costly unless an individual removes the batteries when the scale isn’t in use. This will mean more battery in and out hassles, and it could also mean having to reprogram the device repeatedly.]
      • alvaro herrara, 1-8-2018– The muscle percentage calculation is one of my favorite features on this scale. It’s nice to see what my weight measures at, but it’s even better to see where that number is derived from in terms of, is it increasing because I’m lifting more? Or is it increasing because of my diet? It’s really helping me stay on track of my overall health and diet/food consumption. I’m not sure why it has taken me so long to make this purchase.
    • $49.99- 4 out of 5 stars at & 4.4 out of 5 stars with 6,366 ratings at, $70– Body Composition Monitor and Scale measures 7 fitness indicators including
      • body fat percentage,
        • If you’re losing weight, tracking your body fat percentage lets you know you’re trimming the fat as opposed to losing other kinds of weight [which are healthy to maintain AND keep].
      • body mass index (BMI),
        • This indicator is calculated from your height and weight and [uses a charted measure for estimating the overall body fat by doctors, but a scale with the multiple measures like this can be way more accurate]. The higher the BMI, the greater the chance for possible health risks.
      • skeletal muscle,
      • resting metabolism,
        • Regardless of activity level, a minimum level of caloric intake is required to sustain your body’s everyday functions. Knowing your resting metabolism helps you plan your diet according to your weight loss or maintenance needs. [Care is needed with this also, because an amount of weight to lose OR gain should be planned and worked for with incrementally working towards goal amounts, so the body doesn’t shock itself and so you can mentally get into the groove of weight changing into a consistent way of living healthily.]
      • visceral fat,
      • body age and
        • This indicator is calculated using your weight, body fat percentage and skeletal muscle percentage. The resulting number reflects your body age in relation to your calendar age. You want to keep it lower [than calendar age] if possible.
      • body weight.
        • It may be an obvious fitness indicator, but body weight alone doesn’t tell you everything. Measuring your weight in conjunction with other readings gives you a clearer picture of what’s going on with your body.
    • This OMRON body composition monitor can be used by adults up to 330 pounds and 6.5 feet tall. It stores up to 180 days of data to track your progression over nearly 6 months and features a [4] person memory profile for the whole family to use… Accurately measures body fat percentage using proven bioelectrical impedance method…
        • Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for estimating body composition, in particular body fat and muscle mass. In BIA, a weak electric current flows through the body and the voltage is measured in order to calculate impedance (resistance) of the body. Most body water is stored in muscle. Therefore, if a person is more muscular there is a high chance that the person will also have more body water, which leads to lower impedance.. BIA[1] actually determines the electrical impedance, or opposition to the flow of an electric current through body tissues which can then be used to estimate total body water (TBW), which can be used to estimate fat-free body mass and, by difference with body weight, body fat

Although the instruments are straightforward to use, careful attention to the method of use (as described by the manufacturer) should be given.[citation needed]

…Dehydration is a recognized factor affecting BIA measurements as it causes an increase in the body’s electrical resistance, so has been measured to cause a 5 kg underestimation of fat-free mass i.e. an overestimation of body fat.[4] [The reason is that with less water in the body the electrical resistance of tissues and body portions is higher than normal, which is estimated as body fat.

This also means that with higher body water amounts there is less electrical resistance, so this means that the body fat measures will be lower. Since it’s so abnormal to have a higher water mass amount that’s a reason for Whoops Disease that this is a good measurement when it gives body water amounts. BUT there can be machine problems because the devices aren’t able to read higher body water mass in some cases.]

Body fat measurements are lower when measurements are taken shortly after consumption of a meal, causing a variation between highest and lowest readings of body fat percentage taken throughout the day of up to 4.2% of body fat.[5]

Moderate exercise before BIA measurements lead to an overestimation of fat-free mass and an underestimation of body fat percentage due to reduced impedance.[6] For example, moderate intensity exercise for 90–120 minutes before BIA measurements causes nearly a 12 kg overestimation of fat-free mass, i.e. body fat is significantly underestimated.[7] Therefore, it is recommended not to perform BIA for several hours after moderate or high intensity exercise.[8]

BIA is considered reasonably accurate for measuring groups [of results], …for tracking body composition in an individual over a period of time, but is not considered sufficiently precise for recording of single measurements of individuals.[9][10]

…Two-electrode foot-to-foot measurement is less accurate than 4-electrode (feet, hands) and eight-electrode measurement. Results for some four- and eight-electrode instruments tested found poor limits of agreement and in some cases systematic bias in estimation of visceral fat percentage, but good accuracy in the prediction of resting energy expenditure (REE) when compared with more accurate whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).[12]

The use of multiple frequencies in specific BIA devices that utilize eight electrodes has been found to have a 94% correlation method with DEXA when measuring body fat percentage. The correlation with DEXA is as high as 99% when measuring Lean Mass, if strict guidelines are adhered to.[13][14]

        • Bioelectrical impedance analysis (or BIA) is a simple and non-invasive test measuring how low-voltage electric currents circulate through the body with the help of electrodes… By measuring the voltage drop between source and receiver electrodes, BIA determines the resistance level of these tissues to the passage of the current.

A four-electrode configuration for BIA between the right arm and right leg. Called “impedance,” this

resistance (Z)

Resistance measured in fatty tissues. In fatty tissue, the resistance (or impedance, or “Z”) is high, and measured current flow (V) is low…

[Z] corresponds to the ratio of the voltage (V) measured between 2 points in contacts with the tissue,…

Resistance measured in fat-free tissues. In muscles or water, there is less opposition to the current flow, so the measured current (V) is higher and impedance is low…

on the

intensity (I) of the frequency to the current applied to this tissue.

The impedance calculation is then Z=V/I

    • [With the devices like Omron it is]…Recommended to take the measurement in the morning before exercise, eat, drink or take a shower…Omron’s Full Body Sensing takes measurements from both hands and feet [4 points] creating a more accurate reading by reducing the influence of water movement throughout your body…For optimum accuracy, use your body composition monitor [either] right after you wake up and at least 2 hours after each meal [or food intake. For more accurate measures.] Avoid taking measurements after exercising, drinking a large amount of water, or bathing. These may significantly alter your body composition readings. [Normal actions and activities shouldn’t bother the system readings, but odd OR abnormal actions can.…Plus] 4 AA batteries required …For more accurate BIA measurements the device used needs to use DSM-BIA technology
    • Omron device Comments at
      • Robert Mauro, 4-22-16– HOW TO USE:
        – Do not take out handle
        – Press the power button and release
        – Do not touch the machine until it is calibrated
        – Hit the profile number you want (1-4)
        – Remove handle and hold appropriately
        – Step on scale
        – Wait until all measurements complete
      • Adam, 9-9-15– The scale actually does factor in the weight of the handle according to where the handle is when you turn on the scale. For instance if the handle is clipped in when you turn it on it will read zero. In the same way if you would unclip and hang on to the handle, then turn it on, and place the handle back down on top of the scale, it will now read 1 pound. This is why the readings will be different if you weigh yourself first holding the handle then weigh yourself again just stepping on the scale it will show you a difference of 1 lb.
      • W.tom- 7-25-18…when my partner took the batteries out without replacing them for two weeks, all my history was deleted…
      • Don D.- 7-1-20…The battery life is good, power switch turns on quickly (located at front, beneath the edge, and the display is easy to read…
      • Keith- 3-20-14…I would very highly recommend this scale because it will let you see the day to day progress you are making. Physically, it is very difficult/impossible to see small changes day to day, but having this show the daily changes is very motivating that progress is being made even if you don’t see it…and I agree that there are many factors that go into your overall ‘health age’, so the value doesn’t really represent your health age, but it does represent your physical composition age…
      • Mike Ransom- 1-7-17… I measure the body fat percentage about once a we[e]k. I take that measurement before I take a shower and before eating or drinking anything as getting wet even after drying can change the results along with food in your stomach. I don’t know how accurate the body fat percentage is since I have not[h]ing to compare it to but I use it to more or less track a trend in rise or fall in the percentage. It is easy to use. I am able to turn it on with my foot with a switch on the front of it.
      • Ron- 6-25-19- Same measuremernt as the $6000 one at my Dr’s office.
      • Amazon Customer- 9-24-18– …The history feature for up to 4 sets is really complete and accurate. The indicators are everything you need to assess yourself in nutritional terms. I compared results with professional testings and they match by 95% I would say…
      • Randy M- 7-11-18…If you buy this, don’t skip over the instructions. To get all the measurements, you need to be barefoot, press power on, after it shows CAL and 0.00, press the desired person button 1-4. First time it will prompt for age, sex, and height. If you want to use the GUEST FEATURE (doesn’t save), wait for the CAL and 0.00 and press the top middle button…
      • Jamie W- 5-30-20– Definitely read the instructions and it measures 1/4 inches that gives more accuracy for measurements…
      • Mark Twain- 9-12-18– …when weighing yourself, turn the unit on, [if you] pick up the hand-held piece, but hold it so that the attached rope is slack. Otherwise, if you pull up on it while weighing, you will weigh lighter. Once the weight displays and blinks, you can hold it out in front of you to test the body fat, etc
      • Eliot Gable- 3-13-13– I bought this scale over a year ago…1) The scale provides accurate body weight results, as verified by my multiple visits to the doctor’s office…This scale had the exact same weight readings as each of the scales I stepped on in the various doctor’s offices,…2) The body fat percent and muscle percent measurements seem to be affected a lot by water and muscle glycogen content.
  • [The more water weight you have, the higher your muscle percent reading will be and the lower your body fat percent reading will be.
  • If you go on a diet and do lots of [exercising] it drains your muscle glycogen a little more each day and your fat percent reading increases with each day until you have used up all [excess] muscle glycogen. It took me about 8 lbs of weight loss (1 week at 10 miles per day and 1,000 calorie diet each day) before the readings leveled out. Once glycogen was depleted, the fat percentage stopped increasing. [It seems that the muscle glycogen, ‘food’, is read as fat until the muscle glycogen is not too high.]

In fact, based on my calorie deficit for the day and the difference between subsequent days of readings, the the fat percentage difference converted to lbs of fat lost exactly matched my calorie deficit for the prior day. Prior to hitting glycogen depletion, the readings were more sporadic and it would appear that I was gaining and losing as much as 2 – 4 lbs of fat between days. My wife also had a water submersion test done to determine body fat percent, which is the most accurate way to determine it. That test put her at 34% body fat while th[is] scale read 37.4%. That’s a difference of about 5 lbs of fat for her weight.

3) The scale takes measurements fairly quickly. 4) The original batteries are still working, but I only weigh myself once a day. 5) The body age number seems a bit wacky. I am 32, but it says my body age is 71. I have lost about 35 lbs so far, and my body age has dropped from 75 to 71. I still have another 60 lbs to lose to hit my ideal weight (15% body fat). However, I have lost 1/3 of the weight I needed to lose and the body age has only changed by 4 years. So, that means when I hit my ideal weight, it will probably still be saying I am 63. I walked 1400 miles last year. [This shows that the scale is measuring more than just the present ‘amounts’. A damaged, body composition aged body, will not repair as fast as you may exercise into better health rates. A person who stops smoking has to take years to have better health results from the damage done.]

6) The visceral fat reading has dropped from 15 to 14. I seem to be stuck at 14. 15 is the highest reading. Even after my initial 8 months on my weight loss program eating a very clean diet, and losing 30 lbs, it still only went from 15 to 14 and has stayed there. I am not too sure it is working correctly.  7) Overall, the scale is awesome, and it is way more accurate than I expected it to be with weight and body fat readings. However, I would like the ability to import the data into my computer for tracking. I currently manually enter it into a Google Docs spreadsheet for tracking and graphing progress.

      • Kristen- 8-17-12– I bought this after visiting a fitness resort and learning the importance of NOT using the number on the scale, but rather using measurements such as body fat percentage… I did have to follow the instructions to get it properly set up, as I wanted to use the recording system for myself to track my progress, but I think the instructions were easy to follow. This scale is VERY sensitive, though, so if you’re going to invest in it, just be sure to give it the care it needs, which is not difficult.

Other types of tools exist, the values and uses vary depending on how the tools work and what they are measuring. As we’ve shared above there are various ways that the measurements can be found, but at times the ability to get the individual numbers can be the best for individuals because they can do the calculations without needing to rely on the machine OR even as tests for the machine result accuracy with the calculated readings.

Other Connecting Posts

Please beware they are grouped based on a style of topics.

Diabetic’s and Treatments

[Sorry posts still need dividing & completing for better online reading.]

Whoops Disease Info

Additional Connecting Information

Rhapsodie has written about these issues for multiple reasons:

1) To have a shared written record, that’s useful. 2) To provide info to others to assist them in planning to deal with the horrid medical system of the U.S. 3) To hopefully impact doctors & health carers to do more work than just using reports which may be false.

Pain ASSessment Inaccuracies & Health Issues

Rhapsodie’s Visual PAIN Diary- From September 2013 into April 2017

 Rhapsodie’s ideas to improve Medical ASSESSMENTS by doctors

PAIN Variables


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